ACTA facultatis theological Universitatis Comenianae Bratislaviensis is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal, which aims to present the results of scientific activity as professionals and doctoral students working at the faculty, as well as authors from other universities and scientific institutions in Slovakia and abroad in all theological and related disciplines.

ACTA 1/2023

The issue 1/2023 is available in pdf format for download in the Archive.


Participation in the synodal path of the Catholic Church with the relational, reflective and collaborative capability

Summary: Synodal process of the Catholic Church, in its continental phase, presents us with new challenges that require new capabilities, different between lay and clerical Christians, but in close complementarity with each other. Spiritual conversation as an original form of dialogue among Christians in this journey will be able to be enriched by competencies capable of coping with the internal divisions of Christian communities and opening up to contexts outside the narrow ecclesial sphere. The article proposes the deepening of three capabilities, the relational capability for a new culture of encounter, then the reflective capability for a new culture of thinking, and finally the collaborative capability for a new culture of integration.

Dr. Pál Tóth
Associate senior lecturer
Sophia University Institute

Synodal renewal: a spiritual experience

Summary: The present reflection aims to look at the synodal process as a spiritual experience, of community discernment, in the light of some passages from the teaching of Pope Francis, the document of the International Theological Commission and some documents relating to the first months of the synodal path. One of the four commissions working for the synod is precisely the Commission on Spirituality and has already produced a document under the title “Towards a spirituality for synodality”.
Some initial considerations regarding a process still in progress are presented. As a result, synodality is in the first place a style of daily life which then also becomes a specific mode of action linked to structures, to different processes, to particular events, in individual communities as well as in the universal Church. All of this requires a new quality of relationships at every level of community life and demands more courage in listening to the Spirit.

Katarzyna Wasiutyńska, PhD.
Adam Mickiewicz University Poznań
Faculty of Theology

Synod in the Diocese of Rome: the path of faith between lights and shadows

Summary: Synodality represents a basic, constitutive dimension of the Church. It is the driving force giving life to missionary effort of the Church strongly emphasized by Pope Francis. Synodality is capable of reshaping all aspects of the Church in such a way that its customs, language, style of communication and structures become adequate means of evangelizing the contemporary world, and not just strategies of self-preservation. This contribution, based on the examination of the synodal way in the Roman Diocese, strives for a deeper understanding of the concept of synodality. It presents several incentives that emerged from the extensive process of listening realised at the diocesan level which undoubtedly have the potential to contribute to a more efficient proceeding of the synodal way in Italy and the entire Church.

doc. ThLic. Krzysztof Trębski, PhD.
Trnava University
Department of Family Studies

Synodal process and thinking

Summary: The synodal process represents walking together on the way of life together with Jesus. The inclusion of the laity in the synodal process by Pope Francis is a manifestation of the Church’s acceptance of the Marian principle, which consists in imitating Mary’s consent to God’s will and in bringing Christ into the world. One of the most valuable stimuli of the synodal process for thinking is communal discernment, which can also help individual discernment. The path to discernment through listening and dialogue should be an expression of love for one’s neighbor. In the case of mutual love, the decision can also be influenced by the presence of Jesus in the midst of those who strive for mutual love, according to the words of Jesus: “For where two or three are gathered in my name, I am among them” (Mt 18,20). By striving for love for others, we follow Jesus himself, we try to think like him. And so the synodal way of thinking brings, as Piero Coda expresses it, a new way of thinking, a perichoretic way of thinking something with another in Jesus.

prof. Dr. Phil. fac. theol. Peter Volek
Catholic University in Ružomberok
Faculty of Arts and Letters
Department of Philosophy

Some didactic and spiritual elements on the synodal path after the COVID-19 crisis

Summary: The lecture Some didactic and spiritual elements on the synodal path after the COVID-19 crisis primarily deals with the essential elements that are important in order to walk on the synodal path. The introduction contains a brief description of the current culture in which the gospel is to be proclaimed. An essential element for the synodal journey is the spirit of dialogue. The source of inspiration for the dialogue is Trinitarian ontology, i.e. the dogma of the Holy Trinity is the most holy interpesonal communication. The spirit of dialogue includes listening, which is not only the physiological ability of hearing, but the full involvement of the one who experiences and listens to what the other says. Didactic elements also include paresis, that is, open dialogue to talk about everything. In the end, as part of the spirituality of dialogue, we mention several argumentative errors and manipulation strategies that can disrupt the dialogue and turn it into a confrontation.

doc. PaedDr. ThDr. Róbert Sarka, PhD.
Catholic University in Ružomberok
Faculty of Education
Department of Catechetics and Practical Theology

Dialogue in the Service of the Church Renewal in the Context of the International Theological Commission’s Document Synodality in the Life and Mission of the Church

Summary: In the document Synodality in the Life and Mission of the Church, the International Theological Commission presents Pope Francis’ initiative as a continuation of efforts to renew the life of the Church according to the intentions of the Second Vatican Council and Pope Paul VI. The community of believers is in permanent relationship with the world; for this reason, a constant renewal of life according to the teaching handed down to the Church by her founder, Jesus Christ, is essential. Believers are to be faithful witnesses of the Gospel of Christ according to the plan of salvation. The Church fulfils her mission in a particular environment which is the stimulus for her growth and renewal, which consists in the growth of moral and spiritual excellence in contact with the transformations of the world around. Dialogue has an indispensable place in the renewal of the Church, which is based on a mature self-awareness of the Church in the history of the world. Hence the very nature of synodal dialogue, which depends more on the courage to listen than to speak. Dialogue in the service of the renewal of the Church requires specific attitudes for the fulfilment of the mission of the synodality: love, respect for the opinions of others, trust and discernment in judgment and word.

prof. ThDr. Anton Adam, PhD.
Comenius University Bratislava
Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology of Cyril and Methodius
Department of Systematic Theology

Synodality in relation to democratization as a manifestation of communio

Summary: The contribution is based on the Old Testament background of the understanding of the assembly, and in the New Testament view it approaches the essence of synodality from the point of view of the “communio” of the Church, which takes place most profoundly in the celebration of the Eucharist. In the common celebration, unity is created by the participation of all members in the Body of Christ. The Church lives in a world which is organized democratically in many places, so it is necessary to investigate how democracy can be related to synodality, and how it can contribute to the understanding of the “communio” of the Church.

prof. Dr. theol. Gloria Braunsteiner, PhD.
Trnava University
Faculty of Theology
Department of Systematic Theology

Comparison of the basic elements of the present perception of synodality in the Catholic Church with St. Augustine’s homilies on the Gospel of John

Summary: Augustine’s homilies represent mostly a verbatim reproduction of the authentic speech of the bishop without additional corrections and sometimes was disseminated without his approval. Such is also the first part of Augustine’s Commentary on the Gospel of John (sermons 1 – 16). These the bishop addresses to his community in Hippo Regius and can therefore give us a real look on the life in Christian community in Africa at the beginning of the 5th century. The preacher often asks the community members not only for prayer support for his expositions of God’s Word, but directly invites them to produce their own interpretations as an enrichment of the whole community. Further, he often invites them to ask the Holy Spirit themselves to explain what the bishop has missed to do or to finish, and Augustine was convinced of the correctness of such inspirations. It may be concluded, therefore, that the relationship between the Holy Spirit, the bishop, and the hearers flourished in this community in every way and among all its participants. If we confront these Augustineʼs homilies with Pope Francis’ speeches on synodality, we find that Augustine nourished in his community such basic elements of synodality, as the Pope presents it to us today.

doc. Mgr. Róbert Horka, PhD.
Comenius University Bratislava
Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology of Cyril and Methodius
Department of Biblical Sciences

Faithfulness as an element of surprise in evangelism

Summary: The purpose of the paper is to emphasize the importance of being faithful to the revealed truths and values of the evangelistic mission. In a secular environment, this attitude can be seen as surprising. The cultural climate has changed, which weakens the significance of this type of testimony. However, faithfulness still remains the main form of Christian testimony. It is connected to the faithfulness of God and Jesus Christ. A model for contemporary Christians can be found in the attitudes of the early Christians. Faithfulness touches on the main Christian pillars: faith, liturgy, morality, and prayer.

prof. ThDr. Marian Šuráb, PhD.
Comenius University Bratislava
Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology of Cyril and Methodius
Department of Practical Theology

Mgr. Ing. Miroslav Šidlo, MBA
Comenius University Bratislava
Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology of Cyril and Methodius
Department of Practical Theology

The Metropolitan and the Council of Hierarchs – Guarantors of Synodality in the Metropolitan Churches Sui Iuris

Summary: In his address on synodality, the Holy Father Francis accentuated the need for mutual listening at all levels of the Church. In the Eastern Churches sui iuris, the principle of synodality is not a novel concept. It is explicitly present in patriarchal churches, major archiepiscopal churches and metropolitan churches sui iuris. Although metropolitan churches were transformed into patriarchal churches in terms of their structure, the issuance of the CCEO meant restoring the principle of synodality with the role of the Patriarch as “father” and “head” on the one hand and the Synod of Bishops on the other. The CCEO has also restored a part of the ancient discipline in metropolitan churches sui iuris. This paper attempts to examine the research hypothesis whether the regulations on metropolitans, council of hierarchs and metropolitan assembly managed to comply with the conciliar decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum and implement the principle of synodality in metropolitan churches sui iuris, too.

ICDr. Jurij Popovič, PhD.
University of Prešov in Prešov
Greek-Catholic Theological Faculty
Department of Applied Educational Sciences

The genesis of catechumenal inspiration according to the General directory for catechesis of 1997

Summary: The General Directory for Catechesis sets forth catechumenate as the inspiring model of all catechesis. In this catechumenal inspiration, catechetical theologians find a pertinent solution for the catechetical domain. A careful reading of the Directory reveals however the ambiguity in the explanation of this notion. On the one hand, catechumenate is presented as a model of all catechesis; on the other hand, there is a distinction between catechumenal type of catechesis and permanent catechesis. To support the idea that the ambiguity of the notion of catechumenal inspiration is due to the disunion of the catechetical conception, which has influenced the drafting of the Directory, this article focuses on the research of the archives of Cardinal José Manuel Estepa, which offer insight into the elaboration process of this document. The article presents a debate on two catechetical conceptions which appear in the elaboration process of the Directory, the cause of their appearance and the reflection of the cardinal Estepa who finally influenced the text of the Directory.

ThLic. Ján Polák, PhD.
Roman Catholic Church
Archdiocese Trnava

The specifics of Luke’s view of the city in the third Gospel

Summary: Examining individual mentions of the term “πόλις” in the third gospel points to some specifics in Luke’s view of the city. A synoptic comparison of events, where Luke works with the examined term in an original way, also helps to recognize these specifics. Unlike other synoptics, the possessed man came from the city in the Geraz region, he cleansed the leper in the city. Typical for Luke is the resurrection of the widow’s son, also placed in the city of Naim, and from the city came the sinful woman whose sins Jesus forgave. Luke’s view gives the city a theological value, because he put some key themes of his theology into the city. They are mainly the importance of women, the universal focus of salvation, the title of Jesus as a prophet, the proclamation. At the same time, through the connection of his theology with the city, he reveals the importance of Jesus’ giving of life and meal and mutual touch. By inserting his theology into the city, Luke emphasized its importance, and at the same time the city highlighted important features of his thinking.

ThLic. Michal Mališ
Comenius University Bratislava
Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology of Cyril and Methodius
Department of Biblical Sciences


JUDÁK, Viliam, KRUPA, Jozef, ŠURÁB, Marian.
Archbishop ThDr. Eduard Nécsey (1892 – 1968). Shepherd – Teacher – Preacher.
Dublin: ISBCRTI, 2022, 297 s. ISBN: 978-1-9989986-8-5.

Anton Adam

DUDÁŠ, Miloš, ROJKA, Ľuboš.
Príbeh troch kráľov: Historická, filozofická a teologická štúdia.
Žilina: Žilinská univerzita v Žiline, 2022, 113 s.
ISBN 978-80-89832-28-6.

Oľga Gavendová


Published/updated on 24.08.2023